• Common Phonics Rules
     
    A vowel in a closed syllable is short; code it with a breve.
    A breve looks like a smile placed over the short vowel. 
    Examples of words following this rule: 
    log cat sit tug wet

    v Rule 
    A vowel in an open, accented vowel is long; code it with a macron. 
    A macron is a line -- placed over the long vowel. 
    Examples of words following this rule: 
    no me so we go hi

    Twin Consonants 
    When twin consonants stand side by side, one is silent cross it out.
    To code a word with twin consonants cross out the second letter of the pair. 
    Examples of words following this rule: 
    ball class stuff

    Consonant Digraphs 
    A digraph is two letters that come together that make one sound. 
    This is different from a blend. In a blend the two sounds can be distinguished. 
    Digraphs studied so far: 
    ck- code this by underlining and crossing out the c 
    ng - code this by underlining the digraph 
    th 

    The digraph th has a voiced and unvoiced sound. To determine if th is unvoiced or voiced, place three fingers over your throat and say the word. If you feel vibrations when pronouncing the th, then the th is voiced. To code this digraph underline th and then draw a voice line through th. A voice line is simply a line drawn across the middle of the digraph. 
    sh 
    ch

    Vowel Digraphs 
    A vowel digraph is two letters with the first letter making a long sound and the second letter is silent. We call this: "first one does the talking, the second keeps on walking." 
    Vowel digraphs studied so far: 
    ee - code this by underlining and crossing out the second e. 
    ee 
    ay 
    ai 
    oo 
    The digraph oo has two sounds. One is the sound heard in hook. Code the digraph for this sound with a breve over it. The other sound is the sound heard in tooth. Code the digraph for this sound with a macron over it. 
    ue 
    au 
    aw

    vccv Rule 
    When a word contains more than one vowel, it could follow the vccv or vowel-consonant-consonant-vowel pattern. The first step is to mark the vowels by writing a v under each vowel. Then mark the consonants by writing a c under them. Next divide the word into syllables by drawing a line between the two consonants. Code the vowels and decided which syllable receives the accent (').
    Examples of words following this rule: 
    napkin picnic rabbit

    K and C Rules 
    There are two ways to spell the /k/ sound. 
    Spell the /k/ sound with k if the sound comes before e, i, or y. 
    Examples of this rule: 
    keg kid milky skip silky 
    Spell the /k/ sound with c if the sound comes before a, o, u, or any consonant. 
    Examples of this rule: 
    cat clip crop cost cup 

    Final /k/ Rules 
    Spell the final /k/ sound with digraph ck after a short vowel. 
    Examples of this rule: 
    black lock neck sick duck 
    Spell the final /k/ sound with the letter k after a consonant or a vowel digraph. 
    Examples of this rule: 
    milk week bank book

    v-e Rule 
    A vowel followed by a consonant and "sneaky e" is long; code the vowel with a macron and cross out the "sneaky e." 
    Examples of this rule: 
    name hope these like rule
    Combinations A combination is two letters coming together to make an unexpected sound. These are different from a digraph because you cannot hear any of the letters' normal sounds.
    Combinations with the "bossy r": 
    ar 
    er 
    ir 
    ur 
    or 
    Other combinations: 
    qu

    Final /s/ Rules 
    After a short vowel, use ss. Examples are: 
    boss miss grass dress 
    After a long vowel, use ce. Examples are: 
    ice space 
    After a consonant or a vowel digraph, use se. Examples are: 
    false rinse pulse loose horse

    Dropping Rule 
    When a word ends with a "silent e" or "sneaky e", drop the e before adding a vowel suffix. 
    Ex: make + ing = making 
    rule + er = ruler

    Dipthongs 
    A dipthong is two vowel sounds that come together so quickly that they are considered to be only one syllable. 
    Dipthongs that have been introduced: 
    oi and oy 
    ou and ow 
    Dipthong oi and ou come in the initial or medial position of a word. 
    Dipthong oy and ow come in the final position of a word. 
    Ex: join 
    boy 
    mouse 
    cow

    Wild Colt Words 
    Wild Colt words contain either the vowels o or i followed by two consonants. The vowel is long when followed by two consonants. 
    Ex: wild 
    colt 
    kind 
    find 
    both

    Ghost Letter Digraphs 
    We call the "g," "k," and "w" in the digraphs gn, kn, and wr ghost letters to help us remember they used to make a sound but now are silent. 
    Ex: knife 
    gnaw 
    wrist

    Doubling Rule 
    When a vowel suffix is added to a root word that ends with one vowel and one consonant, the final consonant is doubled before adding the suffix. Vowel suffixes are ed, ing and y. 
    Ex: sit + ing = sitting 
    Sit ends with a vowel followed by one consonant. 
    Suffix ing is a vowel suffix. 
    The ending consonant, "t" is doubled before adding the suffix.