US History to 1877 Course Syllabus
The focus of the course is on the history of the United States from the American Revolution through the Civil War Reconstruction Era (1760-1877). Along with the creation of, and continued role of, the U.S. Constitution in our daily lives. This will be pursued through a chronological study of the early national period, westward expansion, and the Civil War and Reconstruction Eras.
Citizenship skills will focus upon the development and understanding of constitutional government in the United States. Students will continue to gain, develop, and put to use a variety of social studies skills.
*Organizational skills will be taught through the creation and daily maintenance of a course portfolio/eportfolio
The following information will be studied/reviewed (but not limited to) during the:
FIRST SEMESTER (Fall Semester)
The Founding of the American Colonies
DESCRIBE THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT IN EACH IN EACH OF THE GROUPINGS OF COLONIES.
-What is Triangular Trade?
-What does the team middle passage refer to?
-What was a principle crop for each grouping of colonies and their economic foundation?
COMPARE AND CONTRAST ENGLISH COLONIAL RULES and DESIRES TO THE ACTUAL DESIRES OF THE COLONISTS.
-What is the English Bill of Rights and its impact in the English colonies?
-What was the purpose and impact of the Navigation Acts?
-How did Religion influence colonial life and government and by what methods did religion issues spread?
- Compare the different governmental structures which were established in the English colonies.
DESCRIBE THE IMPACT OF EUROPEAN WARS ON THE COLONISTS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON COLONIAL RELATIONS WITH THE NATIVE AMERICANS.
-What led to the clashes between France and Britain?
- What was the Iroquois Confederacy and how did it affect the relations with British and French settlers?
-What was the Albany Plan of Union and why was it important?
UNDERSTAND THE CAUSES OF THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. UNDERSTAND THE TERMS UNDER THE TREATY OF PARIS OF 1763. WHY WAS THE PROCLAMATION OF 1763 VIEWED BY THE COLONIST AS A “CHOKE HOLD” ON THEIR GROWTH?
-What methods did the British government use to exercise their power in the new world from 1754-1763
- What were the major events of the French and Indian War?
-What was the impact of the Treaty of Paris, 1763?
-What was the proclamation of 1763?
Road to Independence
WHY DID THE BRITISH FACE PROBLEMS IN NORTH AMERICA AFTER THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR?
WHY DID THE AMERICAN COLONISTS OBJECT TO THE NEW BRITISH LAWS?
-State two reasons why the relations between the British and the colonists began to deteriorate.
-Compare and contrast various methods of protest used by the colonists against the King and Parliament.
-Who were the Daughter of Liberty?
WHY DID BOSTON COLONISTS AND BRITISH SOLDIERS CLASH IN THE BOSTON MASSACRE?
HOW DID THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT TRY TO MAINTAIN ITS CONTROL OVER THE COLONIES?
-What factors contributed to the Boston Massacre?
-How does propaganda affect a community and/or how can it be used to influence the outcome of a government policy?
-What was the purpose of the Boston Tea Party?
WHAT HAPPENED AT THE FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS IN PHILADELPHIA?
HOW DID THE COLONISTS MEET BRITSH SOLDIERS IN THEIR FIRST ARMED CLASH?
-Name three key delegates in congress during this time period.
-Identify key Revolutionary leaders
-What was the purpose of the militia?
- Identify the importance of the battles of Lexington/Concord and Breeds Hill/Bunker Hill.
WHAT HAPPENED AT THE 2ND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS?
WHY DID THE DELEGATES DRAFT THE DECLARATON OF INDEPENDENCE?
-What was the Olive Branch Petition and why was it important?
-What role did Thomas Paine have on the call for independence?
-What was a Preamble to the Declaration of Independence and how is it a reflection of Enlightenment philosophy?
- Understand the concept of “contract theory of law” – John Locke
The American Revolution
-Recognize the comparative strengths and weaknesses of the British and Patriot forces during the first year and a half of the American Revolution.
-What were the political, economics, geographic and social advantages and disadvantages of both sides in the American Revolution?
- What were the roles of Patriots & Loyalists in the war.
-Where did the Patriots look for support?
-How did the war change the role of women?
-Discuss the pros and cons of an alliance with a foreign nation.
- Why was Valley Forge important to eventual patriot success?
-What role did the British Navy in the war?
-Where did the British concentrate their war efforts? Was this an effective strategy?
-What was the economics effect of blockades?
-Were “privateers” a source of pride for the Americans?
-How did the battle at King’s Mountain change people’s attitudes towards the war?
- What was the impact of the Battle of Yorktown on the eventual patriot victory?
-Why was the Treaty of Paris a triumph for the Americans?
-Discuss the importance of the colonies being recognized as a nation.
-What were the advantages that allowed the American army to defeat the British military?
A More Perfect Union
-What were some of the weaknesses of the Articles of the Confederation?
-Why did the states fear a strong central gov’t? Give specific examples of English abuses towards the colonies?
-What did the Northwest Ordinance say about the spread of slavery?
- What were the purposes of the Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance?
-How did the Articles of the Confederation deal with the challenges of the new nation? Was it effective?
-Why was it necessary to draft a new Constitution?
-What compromises had to be made in order to draft a new Constitution?
-Why did the states fear a strong central government?
-What was the cause of Shay’s Rebellion? What weaknesses in the Articles of the Confederation did it expose?
- Explain the different plans of government proposed at the Constitutional Convention including: Virginia Plan, New Jersey, Great Compromise, Three-fifths Compromise.
-How did the Federalists and Anti-Federalist view the Constitution?
-What is the role of checks and balances in our government?
-How did the ideas of John Locke and Baron de Montesquieu affect the Constitution of the United States?
-Compare and contrast the powers of the three branches of government.
- Understand the principle of federalism and checks & balances.
-Why was it necessary to add a Bill of Rights to the Constitution?
- Review the concept of “contract theory of law” – John Locke
GOALS OF THE CONSTITUTION: PRINCIPLES AND POWERS
-What are the goals expressed in the preamble?
-How does federalism divide power between the government and its people?
-Describe how the separation of powers limits the branches of government.
-How does the system of checks and balances prevent an abuse of power within the government?
- Explain the concept of judicial review and how it became part of the system of checks and balances.
-Which amendments concern citizen’s individual rights?
-What would be some reasons for placing limits on freedom of expression?
-What specific amendments have affected the structure and power of government?
-What was the purpose for adding the 26th Amendment?
- Identify and explain the “seven principle of government” as outlined in the Constitution.
FIRST PRESIDIENT AND FIRST CONGRESS
-Why were Washington’s actions as President important to the future of the United States?
-How did Hamilton prepare to pay government debts and strengthen the economy?
-Why did some groups oppose Hamilton’s economic plans?
-How did Americans respond to the French Revolution?
-What was the purpose of the Neutrality Proclamation?
-Why did fighting erupt in the Northwest Territory?
-What were the main ideas of Washington’s Farewell Address?
-How did Hamilton and Jefferson differ on major issues?
-How did the Aliens & Sedition Acts divide the country?
- What were the causes and effects of the first political parties?
- How did Congress respond to the undeclared war with France?
Second Semester (Spring Semester)
The Jefferson Era
-What were the important legal issues of the early national period?
-How was the election deadlock resolved?
-How did John Marshall strengthen the Supreme Court?
-How did the U.S. expand its territory in the early 1800’s?
-What was significant about he Louisiana Purchase and Lewis & Clark’s expedition of the Louisiana Territory?
-Why did Tecumseh build a confederacy among tribes in Indiana, Ohio and Michigan?
-Who were the three main War Hawks?
-Why did the War Hawks want to go to war with Britain?
-What was the significant about the British attack on Washington, D.C. and what role did Dolley Madison play?
-Why is the War of 1812 considered by some to be an unnecessary war?
Growth and Expansion
-How did industry change cities in the American colonies?
- How did the United States become for economically dependent?
- How did the Industrial Revolution begin in the United States?
-What effects did the Industrial Revolution have on the United States?
- How did land and water transportation improve in the early 1800’s?
- How did settlement in the west affect the nations economy and politics?
- What roles did Daniel Webster, John Calhoun and Henry Clay play in 1820’s politics?
- Why did sectional differences grow in the 1820’s?
-What effect did the Monroe Doctrine have on foreign policy?
- Analyze the Supreme Court case McCollouch v. Madison.
The Jackson Era
-Why was Andrew Jackson a popular leader?
-What changes did President Jackson bring to the American political system?
-Why did South Carolina threaten to withdraw from the U.S. in 1832?
- How and why were Native Americans forced off their lands in the Southeast?
-How did President Jackson defy the Supreme Court?
-Why did Jackson want to destroy the Bank of the United States?
- How did the Whigs come to power in 1840?
-How did the idea of Manifest Destiny Contribute to the growth of the U.S.?
-Why did problems arise between the Mexican government and the American settlers in Texas?
-How did Texas achieve independence form Mexico and later become a state?
-Why did California become a source of conflict between the U.S. and Mexico?
-How did the idea of Manifest Destiny contribute to the outbreak of war?
-How did the U.S. acquire New Mexico and California?
-How did the U.S. acquire the Gadsden Purchase?
-How did the hope of getting rich quick draw thousands of people to California?
-Why did a large number of settlers travel to Oregon Country?
-Who were some of the first Americans to travel to Oregon?
Conflicts between American settlers and native peoples in the Southeast and the old Northwest resulted in the relocation of many Indians (First Americans) to reservations.
-Identify each major land acquisition and explain the circumstances that made it a possession of the United States.
-Analyze growth and settlement patterns and identify impact on American Indians.
North and South
-What was the impact of the Industrial Revolution on slavery and farming in the South?
- How did inventions affect the lives of Americans?
Cultural, economic, and constitutional differences between the North and the South eventually resulted in the Civil War.
- How did cultural, economical, and constitutional issues create bitter divisions between the North and the South?
Age of Reform
- How did the abolitionists worked to end slavery?
-How did the suffrage movement help women gain equal rights?
-What were the main ideas expressed by the abolitionists?
-What were the main ideas expressed during the suffrage movement?
- What were Utopian Societies and why were they formed including: Oneida, Shakers?
Road to Civil War
- How was the debate over slavery related to the admission of new states?
- What was the multi-part plan pf the Compromise of 1850?
-How did the Kansas-Nebraska Act divide the North and South?
-Why did John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry become a rallying point for Abolitionisits?
- What was the main issue of the Lincoln-Douglas debates?
- How did Abraham Lincoln win the 1860 election without any electors from the South?
-Who were the main northern generals and describe their initial campaigns in the West?
-What were the Northern and Southern military strategies to capture their enemy’s capital?
-What caused the decline of the Southern economy and contributed to the expansion of the Northern economy?
-Why did Britain remain neutral during the Civil War?
-Describe the final events of the war leading to the surrender at Appomattox.
- What role was played by the border states in the War?
- What was the impact of Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation?
- Describe the roles of African-Americans in the Civil War.
Reconstruction & It’s Aftermath
-What were President Lincoln’s Reconstruction policies?
-Describe the differences between presidential and congressional Reconstruction policies.
-What were the reasons for President Johnson’s impeachment?
-What were some steps taken by congress to protect rights of farmer slaves?
-How did the Southern economy change after the new Reconstruction policies were put in place?
-How and why did the Compromise of 1877 effectively end Reconstruction?